Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs

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The whole idea of movement, of speed, was in the air. My aim was a static representation of movement, a static composition of indications of various positions taken by a form in movement—with no attempt to give cinema effects through painting. The reduction of a head in movement to a bare line seemed to me defensible. I said nothing to my brothers. But I went immediately to the show and took my painting home in a taxi. It was really a turning point in my life, I can assure you.

I saw that I would not be very much interested in groups after that. It has been claimed by others that Duchamp never forgave his brothers and former colleagues for censoring his work. The painting, exhibited in the 'Cubist room', was submitted with the title Nu descendant un escalier , [18] was listed in the catalogue no.

It spawned dozens of parodies in the years that followed. In American Art News , there were prizes offered to anyone who could find the nude. There is in my bathroom a really good Navajo rug which, on any proper interpretation of the Cubist theory, is a far more satisfactory and decorative picture. Now, if, for some inscrutable reason, it suited somebody to call this rug a picture of, say, 'A Well-Dressed Man Going Up a Ladder', the name would fit the facts just about as well as in the case of the Cubist picture of the 'Naked Man Going Down Stairs'.

From the standpoint of terminology each name would have whatever merit inheres in a rather cheap straining after effect; and from the standpoint of decorative value, of sincerity, and of artistic merit, the Navajo rug is infinitely ahead of the picture. Torrey, who hung it in his home in Berkeley. In , after commissioning a full-size copy of the work, Torrey sold the original to Louise and Walter Conrad Arensberg. There it is displayed as part of the permanent collection alongside preliminary studies and a later copy by Duchamp.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Septentrion, Jan 1, , p.

How To Figure The Angle of A Stairway With A Speed Square

Abysmal: A Critique of Cartographic Reason. In this context, peripheral visual information likely provided online exproprioceptive information to fine tune limb trajectory on the steps, similarly to reports from obstacle avoidance studies [9] , [11] , [12]. While the findings from this study appear to diminish the potential importance of foveal vision, we did observe an increase in gaze fixations during the auditory dual-task condition.

While this may have been linked to increased demands for foveal information during dual-tasking, most of the fixations were directed to the last steps in the staircase which coincides with a comfortable height for line of gaze. It remains unclear if these fixations served to provide a stable frame of reference to use optic flow and full visual field information to guide locomotion or simply reflected a reduction in gaze shifts when executive function was directed to non-visual tasks.

Overall, foveal fixation to an external target had a relatively small effect on walk time suggesting that locomotion can be sustained even when foveal vision is not used to monitor the stairs. Thus, foveal vision including fixations may not be the major source of visual information to guide stair locomotion and detect step edges as previously suggested [4]. Alternatively, the peripheral visual field may provide sufficient visual information to guide locomotion, as participants walked upstairs looking at the computer monitor, the view of the stairs was at least partially available in the lower peripheral field.

The auditory task had a similar small effect on step time, which is in agreement with a previous study on obstacle avoidance that found that young adults kept gait parameters gait velocity and stride time constant while performing an auditory Stroop task [13]. This modest dual-task cost on walking speed and lack of influence on RT and accuracy, demonstrates that the current auditory task and stair walking did not pose a high collective demand for attention resources. However, when the secondary task included vision as well as executive requirements VRT , participants walked slower.

Analysis based on the observational data of a real total evacuation drill

This could not be simply attributed to the fixation to a target since similar changes in walking speed were not observed in the gaze fixation task. So one possible explanation for this finding is that the load in executive function caused a narrowing in the attentional visual field. Previous studies demonstrated that the useful visual field reduces when individuals have their central visual field engaged in attentional tasks [14] , [15] , which could have been the case in the VRT condition leading to a reduction in gait speed.

Therefore, the control of locomotion is most greatly affected when the concurrent dual task places demands on gaze control, reliance on visual inputs and executive function resources. While the present study revealed that foveal vision may not be as critical to stair walking, it did highlight phase-specific demands on executive function. The increase in reaction time in the transition steps suggest that transitions may impose additional executive demands compared to the middle steady state steps.

Movement on Stairs During Building Evacuations

In contrast, the executive demands of transitions phases may be linked to the adaptive control of stepping to accommodate for changes in foot placement vertical and horizontal. Similar accommodation is also observed in gait parameters, such as foot clearance, which is reduced in the mid steps in comparison with the first step [16].

The weak support for the reliance on foveal vision for stair walking and handrail use does lead to the view that peripheral field information may play an important role during stair walking. This may be related in the lab and everyday life to the familiarity of the environmental characteristics. The stairs and handrails in this study were specifically selected to match standard stair design guidelines.

As a result, reliance on an internal representation to predictively guide actions on stairs may account for the lack of any meaningful dual-task cost during the middle steady-state phases of stair walking and reduced reliance on foveal vision. One may certainly expect that in situations of environmental uncertainty, though not typical in everyday stair walking, the reliance on foveal or peripheral vision may vary.


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In a typical set of stairs, young adults are able to successfully control gait with minimal need for foveal fixations directed to stair features even in transition phases. It is suggested that visual information acquired through the whole visual field is able to provide visual inputs necessary for control of locomotion on stairs. In contrast, there is evidence for increased executive demands associated with the transitions to and from stairs in contrast to the steady state phase of stair walking. This may be linked to a varied reliance on the use of internal representation of the stair dimensions to guide stepping and grasping movements during stair walking.

The relative contributions of visual inputs and the differences in control across different aspects of stair walking provide a foundation to explore age-related increases in fall-risk when stair walking. Participants reported no medical condition affecting their balance or ability to traverse stairs and had normal vision or vision corrected to normal with contact lenses.

Participants ascended a staircase with 7 steps width: A walkway was extended at the bottom step and a lift table at the same level of the top step provided an elevated walkway Figure 5. Participants wore a safety harness attached to a retractable lanyard. Steps 1 to 8 are the steps on the stairs. Each stimulus was presented for ms at random time intervals between and s.

Participants walked at their comfortable pace and carried the wireless mouse freely in their preferred hand in all four conditions.

Performance of older adults under dual task during stair descent

Participants, were instructed to perform the secondary task and stair walking concurrently, with no specific instruction on which task they should prioritize or where they should look. A customized LabVIEW program National Instruments, USA recorded footswitch data, button press responses, and controlled the presentation of the visual and auditory stimuli on the monitor. A frame-by-frame analysis of the gaze recordings identified gaze location and the mean gaze time was calculated for each step of the stairs.

The number of fixations percentage of the total number of fixations , mean fixation duration, and total fixation time percentage of the trial duration were calculated for each step of the stairs. Steps 1 and 2 bottom , and steps 7 and 8 top were defined as Transitions 1 and 2, respectively. Mean reaction time and accuracy were also calculated for each step location by taking the stimulus delivery time.


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Significance level was set at 0. Performed the experiments: VMS. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Although the visual system is known to provide relevant information to guide stair locomotion, there is less understanding of the specific contributions of foveal and peripheral visual field information. Introduction Many accidents during stair walking are attributed to perceptual errors and distractions [1] illustrating the importance of visual information during stair walking.

Download: PPT. Furthermore, in the merging flow, a merging ratio of approximately occurred during the congested evacuation. Volume 41 , Issue 4. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username.

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