Anglo-French Relations in the Twentieth Century: rivalry and cooperation

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Start Your Free Trial Today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Europe stood divided between two alliance systems. Though strictly a colonial arrangement, it marked another step away from isolation for both Britain and France and another step toward it for the restless and…. Today, standardization of rules and procedures and the harmonization of military needs must be lifted to the next level.

Agreeing on the full standardization of materiel, administrative processes and legal frameworks for the Brigade would be a big step in the right direction. Finally, it is equally important to not let more down-to-earth issues poison the relationship and get in the way of these big picture matters. For example, armament exports, in particular of jointly developed and built materiel, continues to be an enormous stumbling block in Franco-German affairs.

The Franco-German Defence and Security Council would be well advised to examine two options: a governmental agreement on export control criteria or a country list of admissible customers; or the setting up of a common authority that would decide on export applications.

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As it stands, the implementation of the Aachen treaty is in the hands of the executive powers. Both parliaments are about to set up a common parliamentary chamber. Its task will be to regularly ask the executive to report on the implementation of the treaties. This could in particular include adding a track 1. In sum, whether this new treaty will qualify as a big leap forward in Franco-German defense cooperation still remains to be seen.

Treaties cannot replace political will.

Anglo-French Relations in the Twentieth Century: Rivalry and Cooperation - CRC Press Book

The current state of Franco-German defense cooperation seems to be the optimum possible in light of deep, structural differences in French and German strategic cultures and priorities. The truth is that cooperating with the neighbor is not included in these priorities, neither for France nor for Germany, as they simply do not match. The Aachen treaty is unlikely to change this.

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Going beyond what is currently done will consequently be utterly difficult. The Aachen treaty provides a good basis for doing so. It is now up to Paris and Berlin to fill it with life.

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During European colonization, how did the French, Spanish, and Dutch view the Native Americans and how did their interaction differ? What affect did their interaction have on colonization? Interactions among Europeans and Native Americans varied from place to place, and members of each nation forged relationships with Indians in very different ways, depending on a variety of economic, social and political factors.

While we should be mindful of this diversity, we can still make certain generalizations. Few Europeans considered Native Americans their equals, because of differences in religion, agricultural practice, housing, dress, and other characteristics that—to Europeans—indicated Native American inferiority.

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However, the French, Spanish, and Dutch sought profit through trade and exploitation of New World resources, and they knew that the native people would be important to their success. Europeans also wanted to convert Native Americans to Christianity. Therefore, economic gain and religion were the two factors that most affected the dynamics of European and indigenous American relationships.

After enslaving indigenous peoples in the Caribbean and the southern parts of the Americas to grow crops and mine for gold, silver, and other valuables, the Spanish moved into North America where they concentrated their efforts in what is now the southwestern and southeastern United States.

Augustine but only a small number of Spaniards settled there. Catholic missionaries labored to convert the Indians to Christianity, and they experienced some success baptizing and transforming the Guale and Timucuan peoples into farmers. But even the most cooperative Indians continued to maintain their own religious and cultural traditions, and many priests concluded that the Indians were inferior and incapable of understanding Christianity. Indigenous populations declined over the seventeenth century as epidemics brought by the Spanish killed large numbers of natives.

Instead of enslaving Native Americans in farming and mining operations, the French exploited existing inter-tribal alliances and rivalries to establish trade relationships with the Huron, Montagnais, and Algonquins along the St.